CONSTRAINTS

CONSTRAINTS

Constraints are categorized as follows.
Domain integrity constraints

  • Not null
  • Check

Entity integrity constraints

  • Unique
  • Primary key

Referential integrity constraints

  • Foreign key

Constraints are always attached to a column not a table.
We can add constraints in three ways.

  • Column level — along with the column definition
  • Table level — after the table definition
  • Alter level — using alter command

While adding constraints you need not specify the name but the type only, oracle will internally name the constraint.
If you want to give a name to the constraint, you have to use the constraint clause.

NOT NULL
This is used to avoid null values.
We can add this constraint in column level only.
Ex:
SQL> create table student(no number(2) not null, name varchar(10), marks
number(3));

SQL> create table student(no number(2) constraint nn not null, name varchar(10),
marks number(3));

CHECK
This is used to insert the values based on specified condition.
We can add this constraint in all three levels.
Ex:
COLUMN LEVEL

SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3) check
(marks > 300));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3)
constraint ch check(marks > 300));

TABLE LEVEL

SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), check
(marks > 300));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint ch check(marks > 300));
ALTER LEVEL

SQL> alter table student add check(marks>300);
SQL> alter table student add constraint ch check(marks>300);
UNIQUE
This is used to avoid duplicates but it allow nulls.
We can add this constraint in all three levels.
Ex:
COLUMN LEVEL

SQL> create table student(no number(2) unique, name varchar(10), marks
number(3));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) constraint un unique, name varchar(10),
marks number(3));

TABLE LEVEL

SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
unique(no));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint un unique(no));

ALTER LEVEL

SQL> alter table student add unique(no);
SQL> alter table student add constraint un unique(no);
PRIMARY KEY

  • This is used to avoid duplicates and nulls. This will work as combination of unique and not null.
  • Primary key always attached to the parent table.
  • We can add this constraint in all three levels.

Ex:
COLUMN LEVEL

SQL> create table student(no number(2) primary key, name varchar(10), marks
number(3));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) constraint pk primary key, name varchar(10),
marks number(3));

TABLE LEVEL

SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
primary key(no));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint pk primary key(no));

ALTER LEVEL

SQL> alter table student add primary key(no);
SQL> alter table student add constraint pk primary key(no);
FOREIGN KEY

  • This is used to reference the parent table primary key column which allows duplicates.
  • Foreign key always attached to the child table.
  • We can add this constraint in table and alter levels only.

Ex:
TABLE LEVEL

SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2),
primary key(empno), foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno));
SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2),
constraint pk primary key(empno), constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references
dept(deptno));

ALTER LEVEL

SQL> alter table emp add foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno);
SQL> alter table emp add constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno);

Once the primary key and foreign key relationship has been created then you can not remove any parent record if the dependent childs exists.
USING ON DELTE CASCADE
By using this clause you can remove the parent record even it childs exists.
Because when ever you remove parent record oracle automatically removes all its dependent records from child table, if this clause is present while creating foreign key constraint.

Ex:
TABLE LEVEL

SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2),
primary key(empno), foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on delete
cascade);
SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2),
constraint pk primary key(empno), constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references
dept(deptno) on delete cascade);

ALTER LEVEL

SQL> alter table emp add foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on delete
cascade;
SQL> alter table emp add constraint fk foreign key(deptno) references dept(deptno) on
delete cascade;

COMPOSITE KEYS
A composite key can be defined on a combination of columns.
We can define composite keys on entity integrity and referential integrity constraints.
Composite key can be defined in table and alter levels only.
Ex:
UNIQUE (TABLE LEVEL)

SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
unique(no,name));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint un unique(no,name));

UNIQUE (ALTER LEVEL)

SQL> alter table student add unique(no,name);
SQL> alter table student add constraint un unique(no,name);
PRIMARY KEY (TABLE LEVEL)

SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3), 

primary key(no,name));
SQL> create table student(no number(2) , name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint pk primary key(no,name));

PRIMARY KEY (ALTER LEVEL)

SQL> alter table student add primary key(no,anme);
SQL> alter table student add constraint pk primary key(no,name);

FOREIGN KEY (TABLE LEVEL)

SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2),
dname varchar(10), primary key(empno), foreign key(deptno,dname) references
dept(deptno,dname));
SQL> create table emp(empno number(2), ename varchar(10), deptno number(2),
dname varchar(10), constraint pk primary key(empno), constraint fk foreign
key(deptno,dname) references dept(deptno,dname));

FOREIGN KEY (ALTER LEVEL)

SQL> alter table emp add foreign key(deptno,dname) references dept(deptno,dname);
SQL> alter table emp add constraint fk foreign key(deptno,dname) references
dept(deptno,dname);

DEFERRABLE CONSTRAINTS

  • Each constraint has two additional attributes to support deferred checking of constraints.
  • Deferred initially immediate¬†
  • Deferred initially deferred
  • Deferred initially immediate checks for constraint violation at the time of insert.
  • Deferred initially deferred checks for constraint violation at the time of commit.¬†

Ex:
SQL> create table student(no number(2), name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint un unique(no) deferred initially immediate);
SQL> create table student(no number(2), name varchar(10), marks number(3),
constraint un unique(no) deferred initially deferred);
SQL> alter table student add constraint un unique(no) deferrable initially deferred;

SQL> set constraints all immediate;
This will enable all the constraints violations at the time of inserting.

SQL> set constraints all deferred;
This will enable all the constraints violations at the time of commit.

OPERATIONS WITH CONSTRAINTS

Possible operations with constraints as follows:

  • Enable
  • Disable
  • Enforce
  • Drop

1) ENABLE
This will enable the constraint. Before enable, the constraint will check the existing data.
Ex:
SQL> alter table student enable constraint un;

2) DISABLE
This will disable the constraint.
Ex:
SQL> alter table student enable constraint un;

3) ENFORCE
This will enforce the constraint rather than enable for future inserts or updates.
This will not check for existing data while enforcing data.
Ex:
SQL> alter table student enforce constraint un;

4) DROP
This will remove the constraint.
Ex:
SQL> alter table student drop constraint un;
Once the table is dropped, constraints automatically will drop.

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