SET COMMANDS

SET COMMANDS

These commands do not require statement terminator and applicable to the sessions, those will be automatically cleared when session was closed.

LINESIZE
This will be used to set the linesize. Default linesize is 80.
Syntax: Set linesize <value>
Ex:
SQL> set linesize 100

PAGESIZE
This will be used to set the pagesize. Default pagesize is 14.
Syntax: Set pagesize <value>
Ex:
SQL> set pagesize 30

DESCRIBE
This will be used to see the object’s structure.
Syntax: Describe or desc <object_name>
Ex:
SQL> desc dept
Name Null? Type
—————————————————————– ———————
DEPTNO NOT NULL NUMBER(2)
DNAME VARCHAR2(14)
LOC VARCHAR2(13)

PAUSE
When the displayed data contains hundreds or thousands of lines, when you select it then it will automatically scrolls and displays the last page data. To prevent this you can use this pause option. By using this it will display the data corresponding to the pagesize with a break which will continue by hitting the return key. By default this will be off.
Syntax: Set pause on | off
Ex:
SQL> set pause on

FEEDBACK
This will give the information regarding howmany rows you selected the object. By default the feedback message will be displayed, only when the object contains more than 5 rows.
Syntax: Set feedback <value>
Ex:
SQL> set feedback 4
SQL> select * from dept;
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
———- ————– ————-
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

4 rows selected.

HEADING
If you want to display data without headings, then you can achieve with this. By default heading is on.
Syntax: Set heading on | off
Ex:
SQL> set heading off
SQL> select * from dept;
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

SERVEROUTPUT
This will be used to display the output of the PL/SQL programs. By default this will be off.
Syntax: Set serveroutput on | off
Ex:
SQL> set serveroutput on

TIME
This will be used to display the time. By default this will be off.
Syntax: Set time on | off
Ex:
SQL> set time on
19:56:33 SQL>

TIMING
This will give the time taken to execute the current SQL statement. By default this will be off.
Syntax: Set timing on | off
Ex:
SQL> set timing on
SQL> select * from dept;
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
———- ————– ————-
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON
Elapsed: 00:00:00.06

SQLPROMPT
This will be used to change the SQL prompt.
Syntax: Set sqlprompt <prompt>
Ex:
SQL> set sqlprompt ‘ORACLE>’
ORACLE>
SQLCASE
This will be used to change the case of the SQL statements. By default the case is mixed.
Syntax: Set sqlcase upper | mixed | lower
Ex:
SQL> set sqlcase upper

SQLTERMINATOR
This will be used to change the terminator of the SQL statements. By default the terminator is ;.
Syntax: Set sqlterminator <termination_character>
Ex:
SQL> set sqlterminator :
SQL> select * from dept:

DEFINE
By default if the & character finds then it will treat as bind variable and ask for the input. Suppose your want to treat it as a normal character while inserting data, then you can prevent this by using the define option. By default this will be on
Syntax: Set define on | off
Ex:

SQL>insert into dept values(50,’R&D’,'HYD’);

Enter value for d:
old 1: insert into dept values(50,’R&D’,'HYD’)
new 1: INSERT INTO DEPT VALUES(50,’R',’HYD’)

SQL> set define off
SQL>insert into dept values(50,’R&D’,'HYD’); — here it won’t ask for value

NEWPAGE
This will shows how many blank lines will be left before the report. By default it will leave one blank line.
Syntax: Set newpage <value>
Ex:
SQL> set newpage 10

The zero value for newpage does not produce zero blank lines instead it switches to a special property which produces a top-of-form character (hex 13) just before the date on each page. Most modern printers respond to this by moving immediately to the top of the next page, where the priting of the report will begin.

HEADSEP

This allows you to indicate where you want to break a page title or a column heading that runs longer than one line. The default heading separator is vertical bar (|).
Syntax: Set headsep <separation_char>
Ex:
SQL> select * from dept;
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
———- ————– ————-
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

SQL> set headsetp !
SQL> col dname heading ‘DEPARTMENT ! NAME’
SQL> /

DEPARTMENT
DEPTNO NAME LOC
———- —————– ———-
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK
20 RESEARCH DALLAS
30 SALES CHICAGO
40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

ECHO
When using a bind variable, the SQL statement is maintained by echo. By default this is off.
Syntax: Set echo on | off

VERIFY
When using a bind variable, the old and new statements will be maintained by verify. By default this is on.
Syntax: Set verify on | off
Ex:
SQL> select * from dept where deptno = &dno;
Enter value for dno: 10
old 1: select * from dept where deptno = &dno
new 1: select * from dept where deptno = 10
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
———- —————- ———–
10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK

SQL> set verify off
SQL> select * from dept where deptno = &dno;
Enter value for dno: 20
DEPTNO DNAME LOC
———- ————- ———–
20 RESEARCH DALLAS

PNO
This will give displays the page numbers. By default the value would be zero.
Ex:
SQL> col hiredate new_value xtoday noprint format a1 trunc
SQL> ttitle left xtoday right ‘page’ sql.pno
09-JUN-81 page 1
SQL> select * from emp where deptno = 10;
EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR SAL COMM DEPTNO
———- ———- ————— ——— —– ———- ———-
7782 CLARK MANAGER 7839 2450 10
7839 KING PRESIDENT 5000 10
7934 MILLER CLERK 7782 1300 10

In the above noprint tells SQLPLUS not to display this column when it prints the results of the SQL statement. Dates that have been reformatted by TO_CHAR get a default width of about 100 characters. By changing the format to a1 trunc, you minimize this effect. NEW_VALUE inserts contents of the column retrieved by the SQL statement into a variable called xtoday.

  

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